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Preimmunization: Applications and Perspectivesin Virus Disease control 361 Gerd W. Looking at the load of the future food requirement, the global increased production of FV during last few years has absorbed the additional food requirement and accordingly the eating habits are also changing and shifting to- wards more consumption of these commodities worldwide. Predicting apple blossom infections by Erwinia amylovora using the MARYBLYT model. The only solution was to search for and find mild strains of CTV which might protect against the severe stem pitting strains.
With an additional 1.5 billion mouth to feed by 2020, farmers worldwide have to produce 39 % more. Since the scions and even rootstocks may be severely pitted, changing to a new rootstocks has little or no effect, and this course of action could not be used to resolve this serious problem.
Because existing banana plants are reproduced from cuttings, there is little ge- netic diversity. However, most CTV isolates found in the United States and the Mediterranean region will not affect seedlings of grapefruit or sour orange or induce the seedling yellows reaction.
Diseases, in particular fungus, rapidly can wipe out entire production regions. Currently, the sour orange is being used and is preferred as the stan- dard method of indexing for seedling yellows at the Rubidoux indexing facility at the University of California, Riverside.
Epidemiology of Powdery Mildew, Downy Mildew and Anthracnose Diseases of Grapevine 621 T. A recent survey by the Economist revealed that the world population has in- creased by 90 % in the past 40 years while food production has increased only by 25 % per head. Predicting canker, shoot, and trauma blight phases of fire blight epidemics using the MARYBLYT model. These strains induce severe stem pitting in trunks and branches of lime, grapefruit and sweet orange trees resulting in the production of small fruit and tree decline. Susceptibility of several citrus relatives to Satsuma dwarf virus.
Diseases and Disorders of Mango and their Management 511 Om Prakash 14. The increased income from per unit area of FV is far ahead and can not be compared with that of cereal crops. However, there are strains of CTV which can attack the scion directly regard- less of the rootstock.
In given favourable con- ditions, even a single pathogen or disease may cause catastrophe and complete failure of the crop. Targon et ai, (2000) showed that the mild protective CTV isolate in Brazil, replicated faster and at a higher titer than the severe isolate in the tissues of all samples evaluated. Naqvi Kluwer Academic Publishers Diseases of Fruits and Vegetables Volume I Diseases of Fruits and Vegetables Diagnosis and Management Volume I Edited by S. Black Sigatoka and weak to moderate El Nino weather pattern could affect banana production. A second type of CTV called seedling yellows will induce a severe reaction in seedlings of lemon, grapefruit or sour orange. Isolation and partial characterization of citrus tatter leaf virus isolates from Texas. Print ©2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers Dordrecht All rights reserved No part of this e Book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, recording, or otherwise, without written consent from the Publisher Created in the United States of America Visit Springer's e Bookstore at: and the Springer Global Website Online at: Preface vii List of Contributors xi 1. There has been a drastic deviation in global weather pattern under El Nino ef- fect. This experiment was observed by this author ten years after the report of Wallace and Drake (1976) and nearly all of the protected trees of sweet orange on sour orange rootstocks had declined. People, Arthropods, Weather and Citrus Diseases 307 Mani Skaria 8. Unlike cereal crops, there is a wide range of diversity available to farmers to select suitable FV crops. These cross protecting isolates will overshadow the new introduced severe isolate. During 2002, world fruit production excluding melons was recorded 471.377 million metric tons and that of vegetables including melons 772.71 million metric tons and thus a total world produc- tion of FV to the tune of 1244.377 million tones has substantially absorbed the addi- tional food requirement needed for the increasing population (FAOSTAT ,2002). 2.5.1 Theory of Cross protection Lee et ai, (1987) theorized that mild strain cross protecting isolates of CTV reaches higher concentrations in its host plant than does the run of the mill mild strain isolates. Occurrence of mycoplasma-like bodies in phloem of stubborn-infected citrus seedlings.
Singh Author Index 653 Subject Index 679 VI PREFACE Among the Horticultural Crops, Fruits and Vegetables (FV) are of primary im- portance as the key source of essential components in an adequate and balanced human diet. Effective isolation and a severe tree removal pro- gram has effectively diminished potential epidemic damage from this isolate.