1988 carbon dating of shroud of turin dating a pices woman
Historical and scientific evidence points to it being a medieval creation.
It is first securely attested in 1390, when a local bishop wrote that the shroud was a forgery and that an unnamed artist had confessed; radiocarbon dating of a sample of the fabric is consistent with this date.
Critics point out that it may not be a shroud at all, but rather a rectangular tombstone, as seen on other sacred images.
and the first certain record (in Lirey, France) in 1390 when Bishop Pierre d'Arcis wrote a memorandum to Pope Clement VII (Avignon Obedience), stating that the shroud was a forgery and that the artist had confessed.
In 1988, three radiocarbon dating tests dated a corner piece of the shroud from the Middle Ages, between the years 12.
The front and back views of the head nearly meet at the middle of the cloth.
The image of the "Man of the Shroud" has a beard, moustache, and shoulder-length hair parted in the middle.
Some shroud researchers have challenged the dating, arguing the results were skewed by the introduction of material from the Middle Ages to the portion of the shroud used for radiocarbon dating.
The image on the shroud is much clearer in black-and-white negative - first observed in 1898 - than in its natural sepia color.
The history of the shroud from the 15th century is well recorded.